Anthony T. Reder

Research Summary
Dr. Anthony Reder has a 30-year interest in multiple sclerosis. He has coauthored over 150 papers, plus abstracts and presentations, on multiple sclerosis and animal models of MS. His primary research interests are in the interaction between the central nervous system (CNS) and the cellular immune system, and in how the brain and immune system are altered by the drugs we use to treat MS. Professor Reder has an active lab studying many facets of the immune disruption in MS, and also the mechanism of action of interferon-beta, the most widely-used treatment for MS. They have recently found that there is a defect in the interferon signaling pathway in lymphocytes from progressive forms of MS. This may be why some patients with progressive MS do not respond clinically to interferon therapy. Dr. Reder and other faculty members at the University of Chicago have participated in the development of multiple new treatments for MS. These include the first biological therapy for MS, interferon-beta, plus other drugs including glatiramer (Copaxone), natalizumab (Tysabri), rituximab, ocrelizumab, estriol (the pregnancy hormone), and FTY720/fingolimod (Gilenya), plus drugs for pain in MS such as misoprostol. He has also evaluated IFN-? patients 21 years after the original pivotal trial, the effects of statins and vitamin D on IFN efficacy, Current clinical trials include promising new drugs for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and progressive MS. He has trained a number of excellent MS fellows, funded by the US National MS Society. Prior fellows, Adil Javed, and as of Aug 1, Veronica Cipriani, are now on faculty at the U of Chicago. Dr. Javed defined a new variant of MS, CNS Sjögren’s disease, which requires different treatments than conventional MS. Dr. Reder is also kind to puppies.
  • U of Michigan, Ann Arbor, BS Psychology and Zoology 06/1974
  • U of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MD All of medicine 06/1974
  • U of MN, Minneapolis, Internship and Residency Neurology 06/1982
  • U of Chicago, Chicago, NMSS Sylvia Lawry Fellow NeurorImmunology 08/1984
Biosciences Graduate Program Association
  1. Horton DB, Reder AT. Medications for Multiple Sclerosis and Risk of Malignancy: What Next? Neurotherapeutics. 2021 Aug 18. View in: PubMed

  2. Weinstock-Guttman B, Bermel R, Cutter G, Freedman MS, Leist TP, Ma X, Kile D, Musch B, Reder AT, Wolinsky JS. Ocrelizumab treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis after a suboptimal response to previous disease-modifying therapy: A nonrandomized controlled trial. Mult Scler. 2021 Aug 12; 13524585211035740. View in: PubMed

  3. Cohan SL, Hendin BA, Reder AT, Smoot K, Avila R, Mendoza JP, Weinstock-Guttman B. Interferons and Multiple Sclerosis: Lessons from 25 Years of Clinical and Real-World Experience with Intramuscular Interferon Beta-1a (Avonex). CNS Drugs. 2021 07; 35(7):743-767. View in: PubMed

  4. Reder AT, Arndt N, Roman C, Geremakis C, Mendoza JP, Su R, Makin C, Avila RL, Vignos MC. Real-world propensity score comparison of treatment effectiveness of peginterferon beta-1a vs. subcutaneous interferon beta-1a, glatiramer acetate, and teriflunomide in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2021 Jun; 51:102935. View in: PubMed

  5. Howlett-Prieto Q, Feng X, Kramer JF, Kramer KJ, Houston TW, Reder AT. Anti-CD20 therapy corrects a CD8 regulatory T cell deficit in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2021 Mar 30; 13524585211003301. View in: PubMed

  6. Cree BA, Cohen JA, Reder AT, Tomic D, Silva D, Piani Meier D, Laflamme AK, Ritter S, Leppert D, Kappos L. Disability improvement as a clinically relevant outcome in clinical trials of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2021 Mar 26; 13524585211000280. View in: PubMed

  7. Reder AT, Centonze D, Naylor ML, Nagpal A, Rajbhandari R, Altincatal A, Kim M, Berdofe A, Radhakrishnan M, Jung E, Sandrock AW, Smirnakis K, Popescu C, de Moor C. COVID-19 in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Associations with Disease-Modifying Therapies. CNS Drugs. 2021 03; 35(3):317-330. View in: PubMed

  8. Yuen CA, Rezania K, Park DM, Reder AT. Asymptomatic brainstem lesions and pachymeningeal enhancement after anti-PD-1 therapy. Immunotherapy. 2021 01; 13(1):11-17. View in: PubMed

  9. Garay A, Giardino DL, Huck-Iriart C, Blanco S, Reder AT. The rhythms of AMBEs (arousal-related motor behavioral episodes) in Agrypnia Excitata: a video motor analysis. Sleep Med. 2020 10; 74:224-226. View in: PubMed

  10. Reder AT. Thoracic flexion provokes circumferential dysesthesia: A symptom of thoracic cord lesions in MS. Mult Scler. 2021 06; 27(7):1008-1013. View in: PubMed

  11. Feng X, Bao R, Li L, Deisenhammer F, Arnason BGW, Reder AT. Interferon-ß corrects massive gene dysregulation in multiple sclerosis: Short-term and long-term effects on immune regulation and neuroprotection. EBioMedicine. 2019 Nov; 49:269-283. View in: PubMed

  12. Feng X, Wang Z, Howlett-Prieto Q, Einhorn N, Causevic S, Reder AT. Vitamin D enhances responses to interferon-ß in MS. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2019 11; 6(6):e622. View in: PubMed

  13. Killestein J, Reder AT. Dimethyl fumarate-induced changes in the MS lymphocyte repertoire: No need for subset monitoring. Neurology. 2019 04 09; 92(15):696-697. View in: PubMed

  14. Koskimäki F, Bernard J, Yong J, Arndt N, Carroll T, Lee SK, Reder AT, Javed A. Gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis despite clinical and lesion stability during natalizumab treatment. PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0209326. View in: PubMed

  15. Goodin DS, Reder AT, Traboulsee AL, Li DK, Langdon D, Cutter G, Cook S, O'Donnell T, Kremenchutzky M, Oger J, Koelbach R, Pohl C, Wicklein EM. Predictive validity of NEDA in the 16- and 21-year follow-up from the pivotal trial of interferon beta-1b. Mult Scler. 2019 05; 25(6):837-847. View in: PubMed

  16. Cipriani VP, Arndt N, Pytel P, Reder AT, Javed A. Effective treatment of CLIPPERS with long-term use of rituximab. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2018 May; 5(3):e448. View in: PubMed

  17. Daif A, Lukas RV, Issa NP, Javed A, VanHaerents S, Reder AT, Tao JX, Warnke P, Rose S, Towle VL, Wu S. Antiglutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) antibody-associated epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 03; 80:331-336. View in: PubMed

  18. Sintzel MB, Rametta M, Reder AT. Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis: A Comprehensive Review. Neurol Ther. 2018 Jun; 7(1):59-85. View in: PubMed

  19. Coyle PK, Reder AT, Freedman MS, Fang J, Dangond F. Early MRI results and odds of attaining 'no evidence of disease activity' status in MS patients treated with interferon ß-1a in the EVIDENCE study. J Neurol Sci. 2017 Aug 15; 379:151-156. View in: PubMed

  20. Grebenciucova E, Reder AT, Bernard JT. Corrigendum to 'Immunologic mechanisms of fingolimod and the role of immunosenescence in the risk of cryptococcal infection: A case report and review of literature' [Mult. Scler. Relat. Disord. 9 (2016) 158-162]. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2016 11; 10:213. View in: PubMed

  21. Grebenciucova E, Reder AT, Bernard JT. Immunologic mechanisms of fingolimod and the role of immunosenescence in the risk of cryptococcal infection: A case report and review of literature. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2016 Sep; 9:158-62. View in: PubMed

  22. Goodin DS, Reder AT, Bermel RA, Cutter GR, Fox RJ, John GR, Lublin FD, Lucchinetti CF, Miller AE, Pelletier D, Racke MK, Trapp BD, Vartanian T, Waubant E. Relapses in multiple sclerosis: Relationship to disability. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2016 Mar; 6:10-20. View in: PubMed

  23. Javed A, Reder AT. Rising JCV-Ab index during natalizumab therapy for MS: Inauspicious for a highly efficacious drug. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2016 Feb; 3(1):e199. View in: PubMed

  24. Hunter SF, Bowen JD, Reder AT. The Direct Effects of Fingolimod in the Central Nervous System: Implications for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis. CNS Drugs. 2016 Feb; 30(2):135-47. View in: PubMed

  25. Voskuhl RR, Wang H, Wu TC, Sicotte NL, Nakamura K, Kurth F, Itoh N, Bardens J, Bernard JT, Corboy JR, Cross AH, Dhib-Jalbut S, Ford CC, Frohman EM, Giesser B, Jacobs D, Kasper LH, Lynch S, Parry G, Racke MK, Reder AT, Rose J, Wingerchuk DM, MacKenzie-Graham AJ, Arnold DL, Tseng CH, Elashoff R. Estriol combined with glatiramer acetate for women with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016 Jan; 15(1):35-46. View in: PubMed

  26. DiMarco JP, O'Connor P, Cohen JA, Reder AT, Zhang-Auberson L, Tang D, Collins W, Kappos L. First-dose effects of fingolimod: Pooled safety data from three phase 3 studies. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2014 Sep; 3(5):629-38. View in: PubMed

  27. Poulos C, Kinter E, Yang JC, Bridges JF, Posner J, Reder AT. Patient Preferences for Injectable Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis in the United States: A Discrete-Choice Experiment. Patient. 2016 Apr; 9(2):171-80. View in: PubMed

  28. Coppes OJ, Gutierrez I, Reder AT, Ksiazek S, Bernard J. Severe early bilateral macular edema following fingolimod therapy. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2013 Jul; 2(3):256-8. View in: PubMed

  29. Reder AT, Oger JF, Kappos L, O'Connor P, Rametta M. Short-term and long-term safety and tolerability of interferon ß-1b in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2014 May; 3(3):294-302. View in: PubMed

  30. Arvin AM, Wolinsky JS, Kappos L, Morris MI, Reder AT, Tornatore C, Gershon A, Gershon M, Levin MJ, Bezuidenhoudt M, Putzki N. Varicella-zoster virus infections in patients treated with fingolimod: risk assessment and consensus recommendations for management. JAMA Neurol. 2015 Jan; 72(1):31-9. View in: PubMed

  31. Kasper LH, Reder AT. Immunomodulatory activity of interferon-beta. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2014 Aug; 1(8):622-31. View in: PubMed

  32. Yu L, Croze E, Yamaguchi KD, Tran T, Reder AT, Litvak V, Volkert MR. Induction of a unique isoform of the NCOA7 oxidation resistance gene by interferon ß-1b. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2015 Mar; 35(3):186-99. View in: PubMed

  33. Reder AT, Feng X. How type I interferons work in multiple sclerosis and other diseases: some unexpected mechanisms. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2014 Aug; 34(8):589-99. View in: PubMed

  34. Calabresi PA, Radue EW, Goodin D, Jeffery D, Rammohan KW, Reder AT, Vollmer T, Agius MA, Kappos L, Stites T, Li B, Cappiello L, von Rosenstiel P, Lublin FD. Safety and efficacy of fingolimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (FREEDOMS II): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2014 Jun; 13(6):545-56. View in: PubMed

  35. Victorson D, Cavazos JE, Holmes GL, Reder AT, Wojna V, Nowinski C, Miller D, Buono S, Mueller A, Moy C, Cella D. Validity of the Neurology Quality-of-Life (Neuro-QoL) measurement system in adult epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2014 Feb; 31:77-84. View in: PubMed

  36. Reder AT, Feng X. Aberrant Type I Interferon Regulation in Autoimmunity: Opposite Directions in MS and SLE, Shaped by Evolution and Body Ecology. Front Immunol. 2013 Sep 17; 4:281. View in: PubMed

  37. Chrabot BS, Kariuki SN, Zervou MI, Feng X, Arrington J, Jolly M, Boumpas DT, Reder AT, Goulielmos GN, Niewold TB. Genetic variation near IRF8 is associated with serologic and cytokine profiles in systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. Genes Immun. 2013 Dec; 14(8):471-8. View in: PubMed

  38. Lacy M, Hauser M, Pliskin N, Assuras S, Valentine MO, Reder A. The effects of long-term interferon-beta-1b treatment on cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis: a 16-year longitudinal study. Mult Scler. 2013 Nov; 19(13):1765-72. View in: PubMed

  39. Zarbin MA, Jampol LM, Jager RD, Reder AT, Francis G, Collins W, Tang D, Zhang X. Ophthalmic evaluations in clinical studies of fingolimod (FTY720) in multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jul; 120(7):1432-9. View in: PubMed

  40. Afshar AR, Fernandes JK, Patel RD, Ksiazek SM, Sheth VS, Reder AT, Hariprasad SM. Cystoid macular edema associated with fingolimod use for multiple sclerosis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Jan; 131(1):103-7. View in: PubMed

  41. Goodin DS, Ebers GC, Cutter G, Cook SD, O'Donnell T, Reder AT, Kremenchutzky M, Oger J, Rametta M, Beckmann K, Knappertz V. Cause of death in MS: long-term follow-up of a randomised cohort, 21 years after the start of the pivotal IFNß-1b study. BMJ Open. 2012; 2(6). View in: PubMed

  42. Goodin DS, Reder AT. Response to GS Gronseth and E Ashman. Mult Scler. 2012 Nov; 18(11):1661-2; author reply 1663-4. View in: PubMed

  43. Goodin DS, Reder AT, Cutter G. Treatment with interferon beta for multiple sclerosis. JAMA. 2012 Oct 24; 308(16):1627; author reply 1627-8. View in: PubMed

  44. Feng X, Han D, Kilaru BK, Franek BS, Niewold TB, Reder AT. Inhibition of interferon-beta responses in multiple sclerosis immune cells associated with high-dose statins. Arch Neurol. 2012 Oct; 69(10):1303-9. View in: PubMed

  45. Benedict RH, Amato MP, Boringa J, Brochet B, Foley F, Fredrikson S, Hamalainen P, Hartung H, Krupp L, Penner I, Reder AT, Langdon D. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation. BMC Neurol. 2012 Jul 16; 12:55. View in: PubMed

  46. Goodin DS, Reder AT. Evidence-based medicine: promise and pitfalls. Mult Scler. 2012 Jul; 18(7):947-8. View in: PubMed

  47. Croze E, Yamaguchi KD, Knappertz V, Reder AT, Salamon H. Interferon-beta-1b-induced short- and long-term signatures of treatment activity in multiple sclerosis. Pharmacogenomics J. 2013 Oct; 13(5):443-51. View in: PubMed

  48. Romero RS, Gutierrez I, Wang E, Reder AT, Bhatti MT, Bernard JT, Javed A. Homonymous hemimacular thinning: a unique presentation of optic tract injury in neuromyelitis optica. J Neuroophthalmol. 2012 Jun; 32(2):150-3. View in: PubMed

  49. Cella D, Lai JS, Nowinski CJ, Victorson D, Peterman A, Miller D, Bethoux F, Heinemann A, Rubin S, Cavazos JE, Reder AT, Sufit R, Simuni T, Holmes GL, Siderowf A, Wojna V, Bode R, McKinney N, Podrabsky T, Wortman K, Choi S, Gershon R, Rothrock N, Moy C. Neuro-QOL: brief measures of health-related quality of life for clinical research in neurology. Neurology. 2012 Jun 05; 78(23):1860-7. View in: PubMed

  50. Goodin DS, Reder AT, Ebers GC, Cutter G, Kremenchutzky M, Oger J, Langdon D, Rametta M, Beckmann K, DeSimone TM, Knappertz V. Survival in MS: a randomized cohort study 21 years after the start of the pivotal IFNß-1b trial. Neurology. 2012 Apr 24; 78(17):1315-22. View in: PubMed

  51. Goodin DS, Traboulsee A, Knappertz V, Reder AT, Li D, Langdon D, Wolf C, Beckmann K, Konieczny A, Ebers GC. Relationship between early clinical characteristics and long term disability outcomes: 16 year cohort study (follow-up) of the pivotal interferon ß-1b trial in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012 Mar; 83(3):282-7. View in: PubMed

  52. Langdon DW, Amato MP, Boringa J, Brochet B, Foley F, Fredrikson S, Hämäläinen P, Hartung HP, Krupp L, Penner IK, Reder AT, Benedict RH. Recommendations for a Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS). Mult Scler. 2012 Jun; 18(6):891-8. View in: PubMed

  53. Patsopoulos NA. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci. Ann Neurol. 2011 Dec; 70(6):897-912. View in: PubMed

  54. Goodin DS, Jones J, Li D, Traboulsee A, Reder AT, Beckmann K, Konieczny A, Knappertz V. Establishing long-term efficacy in chronic disease: use of recursive partitioning and propensity score adjustment to estimate outcome in MS. PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e22444. View in: PubMed

  55. Feng X, Reder NP, Yanamandala M, Hill A, Franek BS, Niewold TB, Reder AT, Javed A. Type I interferon signature is high in lupus and neuromyelitis optica but low in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2012 Feb 15; 313(1-2):48-53. View in: PubMed

  56. Tran T, Paz P, Velichko S, Cifrese J, Belur P, Yamaguchi KD, Ku K, Mirshahpanah P, Reder AT, Croze E. Interferonß-1b Induces the Expression of RGS1 a Negative Regulator of G-Protein Signaling. Int J Cell Biol. 2010; 2010:529376. View in: PubMed

  57. Jeffery DR, Markowitz CE, Reder AT, Weinstock-Guttman B, Tobias K. Fingolimod for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 Feb; 11(2):165-83. View in: PubMed

  58. Reder AT. MxA: a biomarker for predicting multiple sclerosis disease activity. Neurology. 2010 Oct 05; 75(14):1222-3. View in: PubMed

  59. Polman CH, Bertolotto A, Deisenhammer F, Giovannoni G, Hartung HP, Hemmer B, Killestein J, McFarland HF, Oger J, Pachner AR, Petkau J, Reder AT, Reingold SC, Schellekens H, Sørensen PS. Recommendations for clinical use of data on neutralising antibodies to interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jul; 9(7):740-50. View in: PubMed

  60. Ebers GC, Traboulsee A, Li D, Langdon D, Reder AT, Goodin DS, Bogumil T, Beckmann K, Wolf C, Konieczny A. Analysis of clinical outcomes according to original treatment groups 16 years after the pivotal IFNB-1b trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010 Aug; 81(8):907-12. View in: PubMed

  61. Reder AT, Ebers GC, Traboulsee A, Li D, Langdon D, Goodin DS, Bogumil T, Beckmann K, Konieczny A. Cross-sectional study assessing long-term safety of interferon-beta-1b for relapsing-remitting MS. Neurology. 2010 Jun 08; 74(23):1877-85. View in: PubMed

  62. Liggett T, Melnikov A, Tilwalli S, Yi Q, Chen H, Replogle C, Feng X, Reder A, Stefoski D, Balabanov R, Levenson V. Methylation patterns of cell-free plasma DNA in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2010 Mar 15; 290(1-2):16-21. View in: PubMed

  63. Jensen MA, Yanowitch RN, Reder AT, White DM, Arnason BG. Immunoglobulin-like transcript 3, an inhibitor of T cell activation, is reduced on blood monocytes during multiple sclerosis relapses and is induced by interferon beta-1b. Mult Scler. 2010 Jan; 16(1):30-8. View in: PubMed

  64. Pula JH, Reder AT. Multiple sclerosis. Part I: neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2009 Nov; 20(6):467-75. View in: PubMed

  65. Ebers GC, Reder AT, Traboulsee A, Li D, Langdon D, Goodin DS, Wolf C, Beckmann K, Konieczny A. Long-term follow-up of the original interferon-beta1b trial in multiple sclerosis: design and lessons from a 16-year observational study. Clin Ther. 2009 Aug; 31(8):1724-36. View in: PubMed

  66. Freedman MS, Cohen B, Dhib-Jalbut S, Jeffery D, Reder AT, Sandberg-Wollheim M, Weinstock-Guttman B. Recognizing and treating suboptimally controlled multiple sclerosis: steps toward regaining command. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 Oct; 25(10):2459-70. View in: PubMed

  67. Badruddin A, Menon RS, Reder AT. 4-Aminopyridine toxicity mimics autoimmune-mediated limbic encephalitis. Neurology. 2009 Mar 24; 72(12):1100-1. View in: PubMed

  68. Zivadinov R, Reder AT, Filippi M, Minagar A, Stüve O, Lassmann H, Racke MK, Dwyer MG, Frohman EM, Khan O. Mechanisms of action of disease-modifying agents and brain volume changes in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2008 Jul 08; 71(2):136-44. View in: PubMed

  69. Javed A, Balabanov R, Arnason BG, Kelly TJ, Sweiss NJ, Pytel P, Walsh R, Blair EA, Stemer A, Lazzaro M, Reder AT. Minor salivary gland inflammation in Devic's disease and longitudinally extensive myelitis. Mult Scler. 2008 Jul; 14(6):809-14. View in: PubMed

  70. Reder AT, Velichko S, Yamaguchi KD, Hamamcioglu K, Ku K, Beekman J, Wagner TC, Perez HD, Salamon H, Croze E. IFN-beta1b induces transient and variable gene expression in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients independent of neutralizing antibodies or changes in IFN receptor RNA expression. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008 May; 28(5):317-31. View in: PubMed

  71. Birnbaum G, Cree B, Altafullah I, Zinser M, Reder AT. Combining beta interferon and atorvastatin may increase disease activity in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2008 Oct 28; 71(18):1390-5. View in: PubMed

  72. Yamaguchi KD, Ruderman DL, Croze E, Wagner TC, Velichko S, Reder AT, Salamon H. IFN-beta-regulated genes show abnormal expression in therapy-naïve relapsing-remitting MS mononuclear cells: gene expression analysis employing all reported protein-protein interactions. J Neuroimmunol. 2008 Mar; 195(1-2):116-20. View in: PubMed

  73. Hamamcioglu K, Reder AT. Interferon-beta regulates cytokines and BDNF: greater effect in relapsing than in progressive multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2007 May; 13(4):459-70. View in: PubMed

  74. Goodin DS, Frohman EM, Hurwitz B, O'Connor PW, Oger JJ, Reder AT, Stevens JC. Neutralizing antibodies to interferon beta: assessment of their clinical and radiographic impact: an evidence report: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2007 Mar 27; 68(13):977-84. View in: PubMed

  75. Banwell B, Reder AT, Krupp L, Tenembaum S, Eraksoy M, Alexey B, Pohl D, Freedman M, Schelensky L, Antonijevic I. Safety and tolerability of interferon beta-1b in pediatric multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2006 Feb 28; 66(4):472-6. View in: PubMed

  76. Javed A, Reder AT. Therapeutic role of beta-interferons in multiple sclerosis. Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Apr; 110(1):35-56. View in: PubMed

  77. Reder AT, Oger JJ. Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2004 Jun 08; 62(11):1922-3. View in: PubMed

  78. Petkau AJ, White RA, Ebers GC, Reder AT, Sibley WA, Lublin FD, Paty DW. Longitudinal analyses of the effects of neutralizing antibodies on interferon beta-1b in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2004 Apr; 10(2):126-38. View in: PubMed

  79. Ahn J, Feng X, Patel N, Dhawan N, Reder AT. Abnormal levels of interferon-gamma receptors in active multiple sclerosis are normalized by IFN-beta therapy: implications for control of apoptosis. Front Biosci. 2004 May 01; 9:1547-55. View in: PubMed

  80. Feng X, Eide FF, Jiang H, Reder AT. Adeno-associated viral vector-mediated ApoE expression in Alzheimer's disease mice: low CNS immune response, long-term expression, and astrocyte specificity. Front Biosci. 2004 May 01; 9:1540-6. View in: PubMed

  81. Chang CH, Nyenhuis DL, Cella D, Luchetta T, Dineen K, Reder AT. Psychometric evaluation of the Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory in multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler. 2003 Mar; 9(2):160-70. View in: PubMed

  82. Feng X, Petraglia AL, Chen M, Byskosh PV, Boos MD, Reder AT. Low expression of interferon-stimulated genes in active multiple sclerosis is linked to subnormal phosphorylation of STAT1. J Neuroimmunol. 2002 Aug; 129(1-2):205-15. View in: PubMed

  83. Feng X, Yau D, Holbrook C, Reder AT. Type I interferons inhibit interleukin-10 production in activated human monocytes and stimulate IL-10 in T cells: implications for Th1-mediated diseases. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002 Mar; 22(3):311-9. View in: PubMed

  84. Reder AT, Thapar M, Sapugay AM, Jensen MA. Eicosenoids Modify Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis. Am J Ther. 1995 Sep; 2(9):711-720. View in: PubMed

  85. Reder AT, Antel JP. Injecting rationale into interferon-beta therapy. Neurology. 2000 Jun 13; 54(11):2034-5. View in: PubMed

  86. Bell A, Feng X, Reder AT. Improved band resolution, loading reliability and reduced 32P contamination in mobility shift assays by retention of unbound probe. Biotechniques. 1999 Dec; 27(6):1122-4, 1126. View in: PubMed

  87. Reder AT, Genç K, Byskosh PV, Porrini AM. Monocyte activation in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 1998 Jun; 4(3):162-8. View in: PubMed

  88. Porrini AM, De Luca G, Gambi D, Reder AT. Effects of an anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody on rIFNbeta-1b-mediated immune modulation. Relevance to multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 1998 Jan; 81(1-2):109-15. View in: PubMed

  89. Byskosh PV, Reder AT. Interferon beta-1b effects on cytokine mRNA in peripheral mononuclear cells in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 1996 Apr; 1(5):262-9. View in: PubMed

  90. Genç K, Dona DL, Reder AT. Increased CD80(+) B cells in active multiple sclerosis and reversal by interferon beta-1b therapy. J Clin Invest. 1997 Jun 01; 99(11):2664-71. View in: PubMed

  91. Arnason BG, Dayal A, Qu ZX, Jensen MA, Genç K, Reder AT. Mechanisms of action of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 1996; 18(1):125-48. View in: PubMed

  92. Pliskin NH, Hamer DP, Goldstein DS, Towle VL, Reder AT, Noronha A, Arnason BG. Improved delayed visual reproduction test performance in multiple sclerosis patients receiving interferon beta-1b. Neurology. 1996 Dec; 47(6):1463-8. View in: PubMed

  93. Ibrahim MZ, Reder AT, Lawand R, Takash W, Sallouh-Khatib S. The mast cells of the multiple sclerosis brain. J Neuroimmunol. 1996 Nov; 70(2):131-8. View in: PubMed

  94. Cella DF, Dineen K, Arnason B, Reder A, Webster KA, karabatsos G, Chang C, Lloyd S, Steward J, Stefoski D. Validation of the functional assessment of multiple sclerosis quality of life instrument. Neurology. 1996 Jul; 47(1):129-39. View in: PubMed

  95. Maimone D, Reder AT, Gregory S. T cell lymphokine-induced secretion of cytokines by monocytes from patients with multiple sclerosis. Cell Immunol. 1993 Jan; 146(1):96-106. View in: PubMed

  96. Reder AT, Lowy MT. Serum prolactin levels in active multiple sclerosis and during cyclosporin treatment. J Neurol Sci. 1993 Jul; 117(1-2):192-6. View in: PubMed

  97. Karaszewski JW, Reder AT, Anlar B, Arnason GW. Increased high affinity beta-adrenergic receptor densities and cyclic AMP responses of CD8 cells in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 1993 Mar; 43(1-2):1-7. View in: PubMed

  98. Reder AT, Makowiec RL, Lowy MT. Adrenal size is increased in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1994 Feb; 51(2):151-4. View in: PubMed

  99. Porrini AM, Reder AT. IFN-gamma, IFN-beta, and PGE1 affect monokine secretion: relevance to monocyte activation in multiple sclerosis. Cell Immunol. 1994 Sep; 157(2):428-38. View in: PubMed

  100. Reder AT, Thapar M, Jensen MA. A reduction in serum glucocorticoids provokes experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: implications for treatment of inflammatory brain disease. Neurology. 1994 Dec; 44(12):2289-94. View in: PubMed

  101. Reder AT, Arnason BG. Trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis relieved by a prostaglandin E analogue. Neurology. 1995 Jun; 45(6):1097-100. View in: PubMed

  102. Reder AT, Mednick AS, Brown P, Spire JP, Van Cauter E, Wollmann RL, Cervenàkovà L, Goldfarb LG, Garay A, Ovsiew F, et al. Clinical and genetic studies of fatal familial insomnia. Neurology. 1995 Jun; 45(6):1068-75. View in: PubMed

  103. Reder AT, Lascola CD, Flanders SA, Maimone D, Jensen MA, Skias DD, Lancki DW. Astrocyte cytolysis by MHC class II-specific mouse T cell clones. Transplantation. 1993 Aug; 56(2):393-9. View in: PubMed

  104. Whitaker JN, Kachelhofer RD, Bradley EL, Burgard S, Layton BA, Reder AT, Morrison W, Zhao GJ, Paty DW. Urinary myelin basic protein-like material as a correlate of the progression of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1995 Oct; 38(4):625-32. View in: PubMed

  105. Porrini AM, Gambi D, Reder AT. Interferon effects on interleukin-10 secretion. Mononuclear cell response to interleukin-10 is normal in multiple sclerosis patients. J Neuroimmunol. 1995 Aug; 61(1):27-34. View in: PubMed

  106. Reder AT, Thapar M, Sapugay AM, Jensen MA. Prostaglandins and inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism suppress experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 1994 Oct; 54(1-2):117-27. View in: PubMed

  107. Reder AT, Wright FS. Epilepsy evoked by eating: the role of peripheral input. Neurology. 1982 Sep; 32(9):1065-9. View in: PubMed

  108. Steier J, Reder A. Neurologic Munchausen's redux. Neurology. 1982 Feb; 32(2):216. View in: PubMed

  109. Lowy MT, Reder AT, Antel JP, Meltzer HY. Glucocorticoid resistance in depression: the dexamethasone suppression test and lymphocyte sensitivity to dexamethasone. Am J Psychiatry. 1984 Nov; 141(11):1365-70. View in: PubMed

  110. Reder A, Birnbaum G. B-cell differentiation in multiple sclerosis and the effect of intravenous ACTH. Neurology. 1983 Apr; 33(4):442-6. View in: PubMed

  111. Arnason BG, Antel JP, Reder AT. Immunoregulation in multiple sclerosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1984; 436:133-9. View in: PubMed

  112. Reder AT, Antel JP, Oger JJ, McFarland TA, Rosenkoetter M, Arnason BG. Low T8 antigen density on lymphocytes in active multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1984 Aug; 16(2):242-9. View in: PubMed

  113. Antel JP, Rosenkoetter M, Reder A, Oger JJ, Arnason BG. Multiple sclerosis: relation of in vitro IgG secretion to T suppressor cell number and function. Neurology. 1984 Sep; 34(9):1155-60. View in: PubMed

  114. Antel JP, Peeples DM, Reder AT, Arnason BG. Analysis of T regulator cell surface markers and functional properties in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 1984 Apr; 6(2):93-103. View in: PubMed

  115. Rosenkoetter M, Reder AT, Oger JJ, Antel JP. T cell regulation of polyclonally induced immunoglobulin secretion in humans. J Immunol. 1984 Apr; 132(4):1779-83. View in: PubMed

  116. Reder AT, Antel JP, Arnason BG. T regulator cell surface antigens in multiple sclerosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1984; 436:247-53. View in: PubMed

  117. Reder AT, Antel JP. Clinical spectrum of multiple sclerosis. Neurol Clin. 1983 Aug; 1(3):573-99. View in: PubMed

  118. Gormley GJ, Lowy MT, Reder AT, Hospelhorn VD, Antel JP, Meltzer HY. Glucocorticoid receptors in depression: relationship to the dexamethasone suppression test. Am J Psychiatry. 1985 Nov; 142(11):1278-84. View in: PubMed

  119. Lowy MT, Reder AT, Meltzer HY. Hypercortisolism and depression. N Engl J Med. 1985 Mar 21; 312(12):791-2. View in: PubMed

  120. Lowy MT, Reder AT, Gormley GJ, Meltzer HY. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro glucocorticoid sensitivity in depression: relationship to the dexamethasone suppression test. Biol Psychiatry. 1988 Oct; 24(6):619-30. View in: PubMed

  121. Skias DD, Kim DK, Reder AT, Antel JP, Lancki DW, Fitch FW. Susceptibility of astrocytes to class I MHC antigen-specific cytotoxicity. J Immunol. 1987 May 15; 138(10):3254-8. View in: PubMed

  122. Reder AT, Lowy MT, Meltzer HY, Antel JP. Dexamethasone suppression test abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: relation to ACTH therapy. Neurology. 1987 May; 37(5):849-53. View in: PubMed

  123. Gurney ME, Apatoff BR, Spear GT, Baumel MJ, Antel JP, Bania MB, Reder AT. Neuroleukin: a lymphokine product of lectin-stimulated T cells. Science. 1986 Oct 31; 234(4776):574-81. View in: PubMed

  124. Nicholas MK, Bania MB, Reder AT, Joseph L, Antel JP. Dissociation of T8+ cell-mediated cytolytic and suppressor functions in young adults. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1986 Jun; 20(2):51-5. View in: PubMed

  125. Antel J, Brown M, Nicholas MK, Blain M, Noronha A, Reder A. Activated suppressor cell function in multiple sclerosis--clinical correlations. J Neuroimmunol. 1988 Mar; 17(4):323-30. View in: PubMed

  126. Reder AT, Antel JP, Singh S, Stoklosa C, Sukhatme V. Molecular analysis of the CD8 gene in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 1987 Mar; 14(2):183-7. View in: PubMed

  127. Bania MB, Antel JP, Reder AT, Nicholas MK, Arnason BG. Suppressor and cytolytic cell function in multiple sclerosis. Effects of cyclosporine A and interleukin 2. J Clin Invest. 1986 Aug; 78(2):582-6. View in: PubMed

  128. Antel JP, Nicholas MK, Bania MB, Reder AT, Arnason BG, Joseph L. Comparison of T8+ cell-mediated suppressor and cytotoxic functions in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 1986 Sep; 12(3):215-24. View in: PubMed

  129. Antel JP, Bania MB, Reder A, Cashman N. Activated suppressor cell dysfunction in progressive multiple sclerosis. J Immunol. 1986 Jul 01; 137(1):137-41. View in: PubMed

  130. Skias D, Reder AT, Bania MB, Antel JP. Age-related changes in mechanisms accounting for low levels of polyclonally induced immunoglobulin secretion in humans. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1985 May; 35(2):191-9. View in: PubMed

  131. Skias D, Bania M, Reder AT, Luchins D, Antel JP. Senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT): reduced T8+-cell-mediated suppressor activity. Neurology. 1985 Nov; 35(11):1635-8. View in: PubMed

  132. Arnason BG, Noronha AB, Reder AT. Immunoregulation in rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988; 540:4-12. View in: PubMed

  133. Reder AT, Pinamaneni S, Smyka W, Nutter D. ACTH production by human mononuclear cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988; 540:589-91. View in: PubMed

  134. Arnason BG, Brown M, Maselli R, Karaszewski J, Reder A. Blood lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors in multiple sclerosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988; 540:585-8. View in: PubMed

  135. Reder AT. Neuroendocrine regulation and the immune response in MS. Res Immunol. 1989 Feb; 140(2):239-45; discussion 245-8. View in: PubMed

  136. Reder A, Checinski M, Chelmicka-Schorr E. The effect of chemical sympathectomy on natural killer cells in mice. Brain Behav Immun. 1989 Jun; 3(2):110-8. View in: PubMed

  137. Stefansson K, Reder AT, Antel JP. An epitope shared by central nervous system myelin and peripheral blood macrophages. J Neuroimmunol. 1986 Jul; 12(1):49-55. View in: PubMed

  138. Karaszewski JW, Reder AT, Maselli R, Brown M, Arnason BG. Sympathetic skin responses are decreased and lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors are increased in progressive multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1990 Apr; 27(4):366-72. View in: PubMed

  139. Maimone D, Reder AT, Finocchiaro F, Recupero E. Internal capsule plaque and tonic spasms in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1991 Apr; 48(4):427-9. View in: PubMed

  140. Maimone D, Gregory S, Arnason BG, Reder AT. Cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 1991 Apr; 32(1):67-74. View in: PubMed

  141. el-Asrar AM, Maimone D, Morse PH, Lascola C, Reder AT. Interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor induce expression of major histocompatibility complex antigen on rat retinal astrocytes. Br J Ophthalmol. 1991 Aug; 75(8):473-5. View in: PubMed

  142. Maimone D, Reder AT. Soluble CD8 levels in the CSF and serum of patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1991 Jun; 41(6):851-4. View in: PubMed

  143. Towle VL, Witt JC, Nader SH, Reder AT, Foust R, Spire JP. Three-dimensional human pattern visual evoked potentials. II. Multiple sclerosis patients. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1991 Sep-Oct; 80(5):339-46. View in: PubMed

  144. Reder AT, Arnason BG, Maimone D, Rohwer-Nutter D. The function of the CD2 protein is abnormal in multiple sclerosis. J Autoimmun. 1991 Jun; 4(3):479-91. View in: PubMed

  145. Karaszewski JW, Reder AT, Anlar B, Kim WC, Arnason BG. Increased lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptor density in progressive multiple sclerosis is specific for the CD8+, CD28- suppressor cell. Ann Neurol. 1991 Jul; 30(1):42-7. View in: PubMed

  146. Reder AT, Lowy MT. Interferon-beta treatment does not elevate cortisol in multiple sclerosis. J Interferon Res. 1992 Jun; 12(3):195-8. View in: PubMed

  147. Crone NE, Reder AT. Severe tetanus in immunized patients with high anti-tetanus titers. Neurology. 1992 Apr; 42(4):761-4. View in: PubMed

  148. Abu el Asrar AM, Maimone D, Morse PH, Gregory S, Reder AT. Cytokines in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992 Dec 15; 114(6):731-6. View in: PubMed

  149. el-Asrar AM, Morse PH, Maimone D, Torczynski E, Reder AT. MK-801 protects retinal neurons from hypoxia and the toxicity of glutamate and aspartate. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992 Nov; 33(12):3463-8. View in: PubMed

  150. Anlar B, Karaszewski JW, Reder AT, Arnason BG. Increased muscarinic cholinergic receptor density on CD4+ lymphocytes in progressive multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 1992 Feb; 36(2-3):171-7. View in: PubMed

  151. Reder AT. Regulation of production of adrenocorticotropin-like proteins in human mononuclear cells. Immunology. 1992 Nov; 77(3):436-42. View in: PubMed