Vernon Leo Towle

  • The University of North Carolina, NC, Ph.D.
  • The University of California at Davis, CA, B.A.
Biosciences Graduate Program Association
  1. Brang D, Plass J, Sherman A, Stacey WC, Wasade VS, Grabowecky M, Ahn E, Towle VL, Tao JX, Wu S, Issa NP, Suzuki S. Visual cortex responds to sound onset and offset during passive listening. J Neurophysiol. 2022 06 01; 127(6):1547-1563. View in: PubMed

  2. Bruzzone MJ, Issa NP, Wu S, Rose S, Esengul YT, Towle VL, Nordli D, Warnke PC, Tao JX. Hippocampal spikes have heterogeneous scalp EEG correlates important for defining IEDs. Epilepsy Res. 2022 05; 182:106914. View in: PubMed

  3. Xie T, Padmanaban M, Javed A, Satzer D, Towle TE, Warnke P, Towle VL. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Cerebellar Tremor Compared to Non-Cerebellar Tremor Using a Wearable Device in a Patient With Multiple Sclerosis: Case Report. Front Hum Neurosci. 2021; 15:754091. View in: PubMed

  4. Karthik G, Plass J, Beltz AM, Liu Z, Grabowecky M, Suzuki S, Stacey WC, Wasade VS, Towle VL, Tao JX, Wu S, Issa NP, Brang D. Visual speech differentially modulates beta, theta, and high gamma bands in auditory cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2021 11; 54(9):7301-7317. View in: PubMed

  5. Wu S, Issa NP, Lacy M, Satzer D, Rose SL, Yang CW, Collins JM, Liu X, Sun T, Towle VL, Nordli DR, Warnke PC, Tao JX. Surgical Outcomes and EEG Prognostic Factors After Stereotactic Laser Amygdalohippocampectomy for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Front Neurol. 2021; 12:654668. View in: PubMed

  6. Zheng W, Minama Reddy GK, Dai F, Chandramani A, Brang D, Hunter S, Kohrman MH, Rose S, Rossi M, Tao J, Wu S, Byrne R, Frim DM, Warnke P, Towle VL. Chasing language through the brain: Successive parallel networks. Clin Neurophysiol. 2021 01; 132(1):80-93. View in: PubMed

  7. Towle VL, Pham T, McCaffrey M, Allen D, Troyk PR. Toward the development of a color visual prosthesis. J Neural Eng. 2021 02 25; 18(2). View in: PubMed

  8. Fox AP, Wagner KR, Towle VL, Xie KG, Xie Z. Caffeine reverses the unconsciousness produced by light anesthesia in the continued presence of isoflurane in rats. PLoS One. 2020; 15(11):e0241818. View in: PubMed

  9. Sun T, Liu X, Issa NP, Rose S, Wu S, Wang Q, Martinez R, Towle VL, Jr DRN, Warnke P, Tao JX. RTTBD-like activity in association with hippocampal ictal discharges in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epileptic Disord. 2020 Aug 01; 22(4):462-472. View in: PubMed

  10. Towle VL, Pytel P, Lane F, Plass J, Frim DM, Troyk PR. Postmortem investigation of a human cortical visual prosthesis that was implanted for 36 years. J Neural Eng. 2020 07 24; 17(4):045010. View in: PubMed

  11. Lee S, Issa NP, Rose S, Tao JX, Warnke PC, Towle VL, van Drongelen W, Wu S. DC shifts, high frequency oscillations, ripples and fast ripples in relation to the seizure onset zone. Seizure. 2020 Apr; 77:52-58. View in: PubMed

  12. Plass J, Ahn E, Towle VL, Stacey WC, Wasade VS, Tao J, Wu S, Issa NP, Brang D. Joint Encoding of Auditory Timing and Location in Visual Cortex. J Cogn Neurosci. 2019 07; 31(7):1002-1017. View in: PubMed

  13. Issa NP, Lee S, Wu S, Rose S, Towle VL, Warnke PC, van Drongelen W, Tao JX. Reply to "which small sharp spikes are benign epileptiform transients of sleep?" Clin Neurophysiol. 2018 11; 129(11):2495-2496. View in: PubMed

  14. Issa NP, Wu S, Rose S, Towle VL, Warnke PC, Tao JX. Small sharp spikes as EEG markers of mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy. Clin Neurophysiol. 2018 09; 129(9):1796-1803. View in: PubMed

  15. Daif A, Lukas RV, Issa NP, Javed A, VanHaerents S, Reder AT, Tao JX, Warnke P, Rose S, Towle VL, Wu S. Antiglutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) antibody-associated epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 03; 80:331-336. View in: PubMed

  16. Tao JX, Wu S, Lacy M, Rose S, Issa NP, Yang CW, Dorociak KE, Bruzzone M, Kim J, Daif A, Choi J, Towle VL, Warnke PC. Stereotactic EEG-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2018 05; 89(5):542-548. View in: PubMed

  17. Bruzzone MJ, Issa N, Rose S, Warnke P, Towle VL, Tao JX, Wu S. Insights Into the Therapeutic Effect of Responsive Neurostimulation Assessed With Scalp EEG Recording: A Case Report. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2018 Sep; 35(5):438-441. View in: PubMed

  18. Ali A, Wu S, Issa NP, Rose S, Towle VL, Warnke P, Tao JX. Association of sleep with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2017 11; 76:1-6. View in: PubMed

  19. Trovk PR, Frim D, Roitberg B, Towle VL, Takahashi K, Suh S, Bak M, Bredeson S. Implantation and testing of WFMA stimulators in macaque. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2016 Aug; 2016:4499-4502. View in: PubMed

  20. Issa NP, Frank S, Roos RP, Soliven B, Towle VL, Rezania K. Intermuscular coherence in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A preliminary assessment. Muscle Nerve. 2017 06; 55(6):862-868. View in: PubMed

  21. Brang D, Dai Z, Zheng W, Towle VL. Registering imaged ECoG electrodes to human cortex: A geometry-based technique. J Neurosci Methods. 2016 11 01; 273:64-73. View in: PubMed

  22. Towle VL, Lee R, Spire JP, Levelt WJ. Letter to the Editor. J Child Neurol. 2016 May; 31(6):804. View in: PubMed

  23. Brang D, Towle VL, Suzuki S, Hillyard SA, Di Tusa S, Dai Z, Tao J, Wu S, Grabowecky M. Peripheral sounds rapidly activate visual cortex: evidence from electrocorticography. J Neurophysiol. 2015 Nov; 114(5):3023-8. View in: PubMed

  24. Xie T, Guan R, Staisch J, Towle VL, Warnke P. Respiratory dyskinesia in a patient with Parkinson disease successfully treated with STN DBS. Neurology. 2015 Aug 04; 85(5):479-80. View in: PubMed

  25. Dangle PP, Razmaria AA, Towle VL, Frim DM, Gundeti MS. Is pelvic plexus nerve documentation feasible during robotic assisted laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation with extravesical approach? J Pediatr Urol. 2013 Aug; 9(4):442-7. View in: PubMed

  26. Pula JH, Towle VL, Staszak VM, Cao D, Bernard JT, Gomez CM. Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer and Macular Thinning in Spinocerebellar Ataxia and Cerebellar Multisystem Atrophy. Neuroophthalmology. 2011 Jun; 35(3):108-114. View in: PubMed

  27. Gazit T, Doron I, Sagher O, Kohrman MH, Towle VL, Teicher M, Ben-Jacob E. Time-frequency characterization of electrocorticographic recordings of epileptic patients using frequency-entropy similarity: a comparison to other bi-variate measures. J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Jan 15; 194(2):358-73. View in: PubMed

  28. Bai X, Towle VL, van Drongelen W, He B. Cortical potential imaging of somatosensory evoked potentials by means of the boundary element method in pediatric epilepsy patients. Brain Topogr. 2011 Jan; 23(4):333-43. View in: PubMed

  29. Ossadtchi A, Greenblatt RE, Towle VL, Kohrman MH, Kamada K. Inferring spatiotemporal network patterns from intracranial EEG data. Clin Neurophysiol. 2010 Jun; 121(6):823-35. View in: PubMed

  30. Towle VL, Yoon HA, Castelle M, Edgar JC, Biassou NM, Frim DM, Spire JP, Kohrman MH. ECoG gamma activity during a language task: differentiating expressive and receptive speech areas. Brain. 2008 Aug; 131(Pt 8):2013-27. View in: PubMed

  31. Ben-Jacob E, Doron I, Gazit T, Rephaeli E, Sagher O, Towle VL. Mapping and assessment of epileptogenic foci using frequency-entropy templates. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2007 Nov; 76(5 Pt 1):051903. View in: PubMed

  32. Ben-Jacob E, Boccaletti S, Pomyalov A, Procaccia I, Towle VL. Detecting and localizing the foci in human epileptic seizures. Chaos. 2007 Dec; 17(4):043113. View in: PubMed

  33. Bai X, Towle VL, He EJ, He B. Evaluation of cortical imaging techniques based on somatosensory evoked potentials. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006; 2006:1000-1. View in: PubMed

  34. Towle VL, Hunter JD, Edgar JC, Chkhenkeli SA, Castelle MC, Frim DM, Kohrman M, Hecox KE. Frequency domain analysis of human subdural recordings. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2007 Apr; 24(2):205-13. View in: PubMed

  35. Bai X, Towle VL, He EJ, He B. Evaluation of cortical current density imaging methods using intracranial electrocorticograms and functional MRI. Neuroimage. 2007 Apr 01; 35(2):598-608. View in: PubMed

  36. Troyk PR, Bradley D, Bak M, Cogan S, Erickson R, Hu Z, Kufta C, McCreery D, Schmidt E, Sung S, Towle V. Intracortical visual prosthesis research - approach and progress. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005; 2005:7376-9. View in: PubMed

  37. Doron I, Hulata E, Baruchi I, Towle VL, Ben-Jacob E. Time-invariant person-specific frequency templates in human brain activity. Phys Rev Lett. 2006 Jun 30; 96(25):258101. View in: PubMed

  38. Chkhenkeli SA, Towle VL, Lortkipanidze GS, Spire JP, Bregvadze ESh, Hunter JD, Kohrman M, Frim DM. Mutually suppressive interrelations of symmetric epileptic foci in bitemporal epilepsy and their inhibitory stimulation. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007 Jan; 109(1):7-22. View in: PubMed

  39. Baruchi I, Grossman D, Volman V, Shein M, Hunter J, Towle VL, Ben-Jacob E. Functional holography analysis: simplifying the complexity of dynamical networks. Chaos. 2006 Mar; 16(1):015112. View in: PubMed

  40. Hunter JD, Hanan DM, Singer BF, Shaikh S, Brubaker KA, Hecox KE, Towle VL. Locating chronically implanted subdural electrodes using surface reconstruction. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005 Aug; 116(8):1984-7. View in: PubMed

  41. Lai Y, van Drongelen W, Ding L, Hecox KE, Towle VL, Frim DM, He B. Estimation of in vivo human brain-to-skull conductivity ratio from simultaneous extra- and intra-cranial electrical potential recordings. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005 Feb; 116(2):456-65. View in: PubMed

  42. Bradley DC, Troyk PR, Berg JA, Bak M, Cogan S, Erickson R, Kufta C, Mascaro M, McCreery D, Schmidt EM, Towle VL, Xu H. Visuotopic mapping through a multichannel stimulating implant in primate V1. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Mar; 93(3):1659-70. View in: PubMed

  43. van Drongelen W, Nayak S, Frim DM, Kohrman MH, Towle VL, Lee HC, McGee AB, Chico MS, Hecox KE. Seizure anticipation in pediatric epilepsy: use of Kolmogorov entropy. Pediatr Neurol. 2003 Sep; 29(3):207-13. View in: PubMed

  44. Troyk P, Bak M, Berg J, Bradley D, Cogan S, Erickson R, Kufta C, McCreery D, Schmidt E, Towle V. A model for intracortical visual prosthesis research. Artif Organs. 2003 Nov; 27(11):1005-15. View in: PubMed

  45. Towle VL, Sloan TB. American Board of Neurophysiologic Monitoring intraoperative monitoring credentialing is for physicians, too. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2003 Jul-Aug; 20(4):296-7. View in: PubMed

  46. Zhang X, van Drongelen W, Hecox KE, Towle VL, Frim DM, McGee AB, He B. High-resolution EEG: cortical potential imaging of interictal spikes. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003 Oct; 114(10):1963-73. View in: PubMed

  47. Towle VL, Khorasani L, Uftring S, Pelizzari C, Erickson RK, Spire JP, Hoffmann K, Chu D, Scherg M. Noninvasive identification of human central sulcus: a comparison of gyral morphology, functional MRI, dipole localization, and direct cortical mapping. Neuroimage. 2003 Jul; 19(3):684-97. View in: PubMed

  48. Mundel T, Milton JG, Dimitrov A, Wilson HW, Pelizzari C, Uftring S, Torres I, Erickson RK, Spire JP, Towle VL. Transient inability to distinguish between faces: electrophysiologic studies. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2003 Apr; 20(2):102-10. View in: PubMed

  49. He B, Zhang X, Lian J, Sasaki H, Wu D, Towle VL. Boundary element method-based cortical potential imaging of somatosensory evoked potentials using subjects' magnetic resonance images. Neuroimage. 2002 Jul; 16(3 Pt 1):564-76. View in: PubMed

  50. Chu D, Huttenlocher PR, Levin DN, Towle VL. Reorganization of the hand somatosensory cortex following perinatal unilateral brain injury. Neuropediatrics. 2000 Apr; 31(2):63-9. View in: PubMed

  51. Towle VL, Carder RK, Khorasani L, Lindberg D. Electrocorticographic coherence patterns. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1999 Nov; 16(6):528-47. View in: PubMed

  52. Towle VL, Syed I, Berger C, Grzesczcuk R, Milton J, Erickson RK, Cogen P, Berkson E, Spire JP. Identification of the sensory/motor area and pathologic regions using ECoG coherence. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1998 Jan; 106(1):30-9. View in: PubMed

  53. Proctor TB, Velde TM, Dayal VS, Bhattacharyya TK, Artwohl J, Towle VL. Auditory brain stem response in young and old guinea pigs. Am J Otol. 1998 Mar; 19(2):226-9. View in: PubMed

  54. Cakmur R, Towle VL, Mullan JF, Suarez D, Spire JP. Intra-operative localization of sensorimotor cortex by cortical somatosensory evoked potentials: from analysis of waveforms to dipole source modeling. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1997; 139(12):1117-24; discussion 1124-5. View in: PubMed

  55. Kos-Pietro S, Towle VL, Cakmur R, Spire JP. Maturation of human visual evoked potentials: 27 weeks conceptional age to 2 years. Neuropediatrics. 1997 Dec; 28(6):318-23. View in: PubMed

  56. Mhoon EE, Bernstein LP, Towle VL. Saccular influence on the otolith-spinal reflex and posture during sudden falls of the cat. Am J Otol. 1997 Jan; 18(1):86-92. View in: PubMed

  57. Pliskin NH, Hamer DP, Goldstein DS, Towle VL, Reder AT, Noronha A, Arnason BG. Improved delayed visual reproduction test performance in multiple sclerosis patients receiving interferon beta-1b. Neurology. 1996 Dec; 47(6):1463-8. View in: PubMed

  58. Pliskin NH, Kiolbasa TA, Towle VL, Pankow L, Ernest JT, Noronha A, Luchins DJ. Charles Bonnet syndrome: an early marker for dementia? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996 Sep; 44(9):1055-61. View in: PubMed

  59. Cao Y, Towle VL, Levin DN, Balter JM. Functional mapping of human motor cortical activation with conventional MR imaging at 1.5 T. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1993 Nov-Dec; 3(6):869-75. View in: PubMed

  60. Cao Y, Vikingstad EM, Huttenlocher PR, Towle VL, Levin DN. Functional magnetic resonance studies of the reorganization of the human hand sensorimotor area after unilateral brain injury in the perinatal period. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Sep 27; 91(20):9612-6. View in: PubMed

  61. Towle VL, Cakmur R, Cao Y, Brigell M, Parmeggiani L. Locating VEP equivalent dipoles in magnetic resonance images. Int J Neurosci. 1995; 80(1-4):105-16. View in: PubMed

  62. Towle VL, Bolaños J, Suarez D, Tan K, Grzeszczuk R, Levin DN, Cakmur R, Frank SA, Spire JP. The spatial location of EEG electrodes: locating the best-fitting sphere relative to cortical anatomy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1993 Jan; 86(1):1-6. View in: PubMed

  63. Towle VL, Cohen S, Alperin N, Hoffmann K, Cogen P, Milton J, Grzesczcuk R, Pelizzari C, Syed I, Spire JP. Displaying electrocorticographic findings on gyral anatomy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1995 Apr; 94(4):221-8. View in: PubMed

  64. Towle VL, Harter MR, Previc FH. Binocular interaction of orientation and spatial frequency channels: evoked potentials and observer sensitivity. Percept Psychophys. 1980 Apr; 27(4):351-60. View in: PubMed

  65. Harter MR, Conder ES, Towle VL. Orientation-specific and luminance effects: interocular suppression of visual evoked potentials in man. Psychophysiology. 1980 Mar; 17(2):141-5. View in: PubMed

  66. Sokol S, Hansen VC, Moskowitz A, Greenfield P, Towle VL. Evoked potential and preferential looking estimates of visual acuity in pediatric patients. Ophthalmology. 1983 May; 90(5):552-62. View in: PubMed

  67. Towle VL, Moskowitz A, Sokol S, Schwartz B. The visual evoked potential in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: effects of check size, field size, and stimulation rate. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1983 Feb; 24(2):175-83. View in: PubMed

  68. Sokol S, Moskowitz A, Towle VL. Age-related changes in the latency of the visual evoked potential: influence of check size. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1981 May; 51(5):559-62. View in: PubMed

  69. Towle VL, Sutcliffe E, Sokol S. Diagnosing functional visual deficits with the P300 component of the visual evoked potential. Arch Ophthalmol. 1985 Jan; 103(1):47-50. View in: PubMed

  70. Ivanovic LV, Rosenberg RS, Towle VL, Graham AM, Gewertz BL, Zarins C, Spire JP. Spectral analysis of EEG during carotid endarterectomy. Ann Vasc Surg. 1986 May; 1(1):112-7. View in: PubMed

  71. Jaspan JB, Towle VL, Maselli R, Herold K. Clinical studies with an aldose reductase inhibitor in the autonomic and somatic neuropathies of diabetes. Metabolism. 1986 Apr; 35(4 Suppl 1):83-92. View in: PubMed

  72. Witt JC, Towle VL, Munson R, Ohira T, Spire JP. Vector analysis of three-dimensional evoked potentials: eccentric dipoles. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1989 Feb; 36(2):291-5. View in: PubMed

  73. Towle VL, Brigell M, Spire JP. Hemi-field pattern visual evoked potentials: a comparison of display and analysis techniques. Brain Topogr. 1989; 1(4):263-70. View in: PubMed

  74. Towle VL, Maselli R, Bernstein LP, Spire JP. Electrophysiologic studies on locked-in patients: heterogeneity of findings. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1989 Nov; 73(5):419-26. View in: PubMed

  75. Towle VL, Munson R, Ohira T, Ivanovic L, Witt JC, Spire JP. Three-dimensional human somatosensory evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1988 Sep-Oct; 71(5):336-47. View in: PubMed

  76. Blackman JD, Towle VL, Lewis GF, Spire JP, Polonsky KS. Hypoglycemic thresholds for cognitive dysfunction in humans. Diabetes. 1990 Jul; 39(7):828-35. View in: PubMed

  77. Witt JC, Towle VL, Bolaños J, Spire JP. Tetrahedral recording of 3-D BAEPs: evidence for the centered dipole model. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1991 Nov-Dec; 80(6):551-60. View in: PubMed

  78. Towle VL, Witt JC, Nader SH, Reder AT, Foust R, Spire JP. Three-dimensional human pattern visual evoked potentials. II. Multiple sclerosis patients. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1991 Sep-Oct; 80(5):339-46. View in: PubMed

  79. Towle VL, Witt JC, Ohira T, Munson R, Nader SH, Spire JP. Three-dimensional human pattern visual evoked potentials. I. Normal subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1991 Sep-Oct; 80(5):329-38. View in: PubMed

  80. Blackman JD, Towle VL, Sturis J, Lewis GF, Spire JP, Polonsky KS. Hypoglycemic thresholds for cognitive dysfunction in IDDM. Diabetes. 1992 Mar; 41(3):392-9. View in: PubMed

  81. Harter MR, Towle VL, Musso MF. Size specificity and interocular suppression: monocular evoked potentials and reaction times. Vision Res. 1976; 16(10):1111-7. View in: PubMed

  82. Towle VL, Harter MR. Objective determination of human visual acuity: pattern evoked potentials. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1977 Nov; 16(11):1073-6. View in: PubMed

  83. Towle VL, Harter MR. Objective determination of human visual acuity from the visual evoked potential. Percept Psychophys. 1979 Jun; 25(6):497-500. View in: PubMed

  84. Harter MR, Towle VL, Zakrzewski M, Moyer SM. An objective indicant of binocular vision in humans: size-specific interocular suppression of visual evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1977 Dec; 43(6):825-36. View in: PubMed